IMS – Export Strategies for SMEs Looking to Enter the European Single Market

Please have a read through the case study provided below and answer the question with suitable references.

Deciding to enter a Common/Single Market, such as the European market, can be much more complex than entering one market/country, i.e. entering an area with many different/internal cultural differences, strict regulations, different national economies, etc. Moreover, the entry strategy into the EU market will differ from one organisation to another, based, for instance, on its size (SME/LSE). Different models help us describe and analyse the factors that impact on entry modes and market selection, such as Kochs (2001) MEMS Model and Perks (2009) 6 Influential Factors.

A study from Eurodev explores the different entry modes for US-based SMEs planning to enter the European Single Market. Based on Reelankavil and Rajs classification of entry modes, the authors argue that a traditional export entry mode would be the easiest way to go for SMEs whereas a more risky strategy would be the wholly owned subsidiary. However, a traditional export entry mode would also mean little control over operations and an inability to achieve/benefit from the full potential of local markets (i.e. compared to a wholly owned subsidiary).

As for the specific case of US-based SMEs looking to enter the EU market, the least capital-intensive strategies appear to be the most preferred/used by SMEs (i.e. low cost options). Moreover, the high uncertainty SMEs have to face during their expansion into the EU market pushes them to focus on informal planning processes – compared to LSEs – as this has been described by Prater and Ghosh (2005). As for the operational challenges they face in the EU market, environmental regulations, inventory/logistics management and getting reliable financial data appear to be among their top concerns.

On the other hand, Large and Medium-scale Enterprises tend to have more financial/investment capital that allows them, for instance, to use a joint venture and/or buyouts. How can LSEs plan their entry into the EU Single Market?

Limiting Reactant and Mass Percentage of a Solution


Chemical reactions are a daily occurrence in individuals’ lives. The reaction revolves around the interaction of atoms, chemical bonds, and essential activities. The reaction results to diverse activities such as combustion, rusting, and photosynthesis. A critical analysis of the phenomenon is essential towards enabling individuals to gather credible information on the role of the limiting reactants in a particular reaction. A critical analysis of the available literature further reveals that two factors play a crucial role in determining the yield in a particular chemical reaction. The influential factors include the amount of the starting materials and the anticipated percentage yield. Scientists further affirm that adjustment of environmental factors such as temperature and pressure may increase the yield of the products in a chemical reaction. The limiting reactant also helps in determining the amount of the yield. The effective recording of data further helps in the derivation of credible findings from a particular study.





The Limiting Reactant and the Mass Percentage of a Solution

The study reveals that chemical reactions play an essential part in individuals’ lives. The reactions lead to the emergence of diverse essential activities such as combustion, rusting, and photosynthesis. A critical analysis of the available literature further reveals that two factors play a crucial role in determining the yield in a particular chemical reaction (Marin 20). The influential factors include; the amount of the starting materials and the anticipated percentage yield. Scientists further affirm that adjustment of environmental factors such as temperature and pressure may increase the yield of the products in a chemical reaction. The limiting reactant also helps in determining the amount of the yield (Davis et al. 36). A critical review of the existing literature further postulates that diverse chemical reactions occur in relation to a fixed number of moles. A critical analysis of the phenomenon is essentials towards determining the limiting reactant and the mass percentage of the solution in a reaction between sodium phosphate dodecahydrate (Na3PO4·12H2O) and barium chloride dihydrate (BaCl2·2H2O).

A Brief Discussion of the Materials and Methods

The study indicates that the reaction between Na3PO4·12H2O and BaCl2·2H2O results into an unknown solution. The researcher aims at identifying the limiting reagent and the mass percentage of each component (Davis et al. 36). Essentially, the reaction of the Na3PO4·12H2O and BaCl2·2H2O in an aqueous solution leads to the production of solid barium phosphate (Ba3 (PO4)2). The subsequent chemical equation represents the reaction.

2 Na3PO4·12H2O (aq) + 3 BaCl2·2H2O (aq) → Ba3 (PO4)2(s) + 6 NaCl (aq) + 30 H2O (l)

The reaction reveals that the two reacting salts and the sodium chloride (NaCL) are highly soluble in water. However, barium sulphate (Ba3 (PO4)2) is among the solids that do not dissolve in water. The subsequent ionic equation also represents the reaction.

6 Na+ + 2 PO43- + 24 H2O (l) + 3 Ba2+ + 6 Cl- + 6 H2O (l) → Ba3 (PO4)2(s) + 6 Na+ + 6 Cl- + 30 H2O (l)

The formulation of the net ionic reaction is also essentials in removing the spectator ions, cations, and anions. The interaction between the cations, anions, and spectators ions does not result to credible observable chemical reactions (Davis et al. 36). The formulation of the net ionic equation is also essential towards identifying the resulting precipitate. The subsequent represents the net ionic reaction.

2 PO43- + 3 Ba2+ → Ba3 (PO4)2(s)

Therefore the unknown solid sample 2A is Ba3 (PO4)2(s). The solid will help in the identification of the limiting reagent.


The table represents a summary of the reaction and the results.

Original mass of the unknown


The Mass of Precipitate


Test Results For Limiting Reagent


Trial 1 2 3 Trial 1 2 3 Trial1on precipitate 2 3
Mass of initial sample and vial (g) 35.866 35.862 35.862 Mass of filter and product 2.1235 1.4802 1.7506 Addition of drops of


No No Slight haze
Mass of vial (g) 34.083 32.323 33.652 Mass of filter 1.2903 1.309 1.30002 Addition of drops of


Yes Yes Yes


The experiment postulates that the chemical reaction between Na3PO4·12 H2O and BaCl2·2 H2O leads to the formation of a heterogeneous mixture of unknown mass and composition. Therefore, adding water (H2O) in the unknown mass further leads to the formation of Ba3 (PO4)2. It further enhances the measurement of the new substance.

The study further indicates that chemical reaction between substances occurs within the range of fixed mole ratios. The net ionic equation helps in the determination of the reacting moles in a particular activity. The subsequent represents the net ionic equation.

2 PO43- + 3 Ba2+ → Ba3 (PO4)2(s)

The reaction suggests the formation of 2 moles of phosphate iron. The formation emanates from the 2 moles of Na3PO4·12H2O. The analysis further reveals that the Na3PO4·12H2O has a molar mass of 760.24g. The ionic equation further affirms the reaction of 3 moles of Barium. The 3 moles emanate from the 732.81g of BaCl2·2H2O. Besides, the successful completion of the reaction will lead to the formation of 1 mole of Ba3 (PO4)2 that is 601.93g.

The experiment reveals that the testing of the limiting reactant will help in the determination of the percent composition of the mixture of salt. Two tests will further help in the identification of the limiting reactant of the barium phosphate solid. A phosphate agent plays a crucial role in the determination of the amount of barium ions in the solution. The formation of a precipitate further reveals that existence of excess barium ions (Marin 20). The second test revolves around the use of a barium reagent to identify the existence of phosphate ions. The formation of a precipitate is an indicator of the excess phosphate ions. The subsequent calculation postulates the analysis of the data from the experiment.


The calculation is required for the analysis of the data in this experiment. The study reveals that 0.188g of Ba3 (PO4)2 precipitate form from the 0.942g of the salt mixture. The analysis further reveals that the limiting reactant is BaCl2·2H2O. The reaction’s stoichiometry also shows that that 1 mole Ba3 (PO4)2 needs 3 moles Ba2+. The subsequent calculation postulates the number of BaCl2·2H2Og in the initial mixture that led to the production of 0.188 g Ba3 (PO4)2.

Computation 1: 0.188g Ba3 (PO4)2 x 1 mole Ba3 (PO4)2/601.93g Ba3(PO4)2 x 3 mole Ba2+/1 mole Ba3(PO4)2 = 9.37 x 10-4 mole Ba2+

9.37 x 10-4 mole Ba2+ x 1 mole BaCl2·2H2O/1 mole Ba2+ x 244g BaCl2·2H2O/1 mole BaCl2·2H2O = 0.228 g BaCl2·2H2O

Computation 2: The difference between the total mass of the original salt sample and the mass of the BaCl2·2H2O,

= (0.942 g – 0.229 g =) 0.713 g.

iii) The percent BaCl2·2H2O in the salt mixture is

= 0.229 g/0.942 g x 100 = 24.3% BaCl2·2H20

iii) The percent Na3PO4·12H2O in the salt mixture is 0.713 g/0.942 g x 100 = 75.7% Na3PO4·12H2O


Works Cited

Davis, Mark E, and Robert J. Davis. Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction Engineering. Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications, 2012.

Marin, Guy B. Computational Fluid Dynamics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006.

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